Visual Tools for Transforming Information Into Knowledge
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Featuring new research and examples, this practical resource focuses on brainstorming webs, graphic organizers, and concept maps to improve instruction and enhance students' cognitive development.
or researcher of a set of visual tools, or visual tools software, and/or a language of visual tools that requires specialized techniques, resources, and training has a registered copyright, I have used the appropriate symbol that legally and professionally recognizes their work, and I hope that readers will investigate and honor these distinctions. 1 The Mapping Metaphor Teachers around the world are often mystified by the mismatch between their perceptions of students’ thinking and classroom
scaffolds—story maps—to analyze and synthesize meaningful patterns of ideas not readily apparent in page after page of text. And, increasingly, brainstorming webs, or mind mapping, have become basics in some schools for writing process prompts. Finally, maps based on thinking processes have been used extensively, enabling students to transfer complex thinking skills in the form of tools across disciplines. Though the uses of these tools overlap, there is rarely a coordinated effort to help
the construction of knowledge, as presented most vividly in the applications of brainstorming webs for educators by Nancy Margulies (Margulies, 1991; Margulies & Valenza, 2005). The first systematic use of webbing in schools was to facilitate students’ fluency of ideas during prewriting activities. When I was pursuing my teaching credentials in the early 1980s through the Bay Area Writing Project at the University of California at Berkeley, the use of brainstorming webs was just beginning to be
an increase in kelp caused a decrease in sea urchins, but this is not a direct cause. Remind students to be very careful in their thinking about what caused what. Procedure 4. Ask teams of students to trace a closed “loop.” Can they start at one element, follow the arrows around the circle, and return to where they started? Each of these pathways is a feedback loop that tells part of the story. Trace each loop in a different color. After students trace a loop, ask them to make a simplified
by David Schumaker Mind Mapping Viewing Book Reviews Mindscapes From Metaphors Seeking Personal Growth 5. Graphic Organizers for Analytical Tasks An Overview of Graphic Organizers, by Greg Freeman Comparing Graphic Organizers and Brainstorming Webs Organizers for Habits of Mind Chunking, Memory, and the Organizing Brain Content-Specific Graphics as an Advanced Organizer Process-Specific Maps The Big-Picture Organizers Mapping Lesson Plans Design and Understanding 6. Conceptual