The Unschooled Mind: How Children Think And How Schools Should Teach

The Unschooled Mind: How Children Think And How Schools Should Teach

Howard E. Gardner

Language: English

Pages: 353


Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

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Merging cognitive science with educational agenda, Gardner shows how ill-suited our minds and natural patterns of learning are to current educational materials, practices, and institutions, and makes an eloquent case for restructuring our schools. This reissue includes a new introduction by the author.


















place. Because the students at both ends of the terminal are strongly motivated to communicate their ideas to others and to comprehend what the others have created, misunderstandings can be nipped in the bud and understandings can arise in the natural course of events. In “Star School” programs, which are similar, students at different sites communicate by satellite with one another and with scientific experts as well, in a joint effort to collect data relevant to global problems, such as the

provided by students. Most happily, students who participate in reciprocal reading gradually become able to internalize the various roles, so that they can use them even when they are approaching a text on their own, without the benefit of modeling teachers or collaborating peers. Collaborative procedures like reciprocal teaching have also proved beneficial in other domains of literacy. As early as the first grade, Japanese students are posed arithmetical problems of some complexity and allowed

should help to develop, challenge, and extend gut and lay dynamics in ways that make better, more comprehensive sense of the world and that lay a groundwork for the formalized conceptions provided by physicists. Gut dynamics can be developed, for example, by affording students opportunities to play with air tracks, air tables, or other near frictionless surfaces; lay dynamics can be developed by learning to use words such as friction (distinguishing force of friction from heat due to friction)

human history when individuals or groups confront what had been thought to be a limit or a constraint—a fear of falling off the end of the earth, a belief that each species is sacrosanct, a conviction that parallel lines never meet—and cast it aside that horizons open up, or perhaps that they are altogether redesigned or redefined. Disciplines are organized sets of constraints, but the fact that disciplines advance and are transformed proves that these constraints can be freeing as well as

Do They Interact?” Quarterly Newsletter of the Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition 9 (October 1987): 120-28; A. C. Hildebrand, “Confusing Chromosome Number and Structure: A Common Student Error” (Unpublished paper, University of California at Berkeley, 1990); J. Kinnear, “Identification of Misconceptions in Genetics and the Use of Computer Simulation in Their Correction,” in H. Helm and J. Novak, eds., Proceedings of the International Seminar on Misconceptions in Science and Mathematics

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