The Lute in the Dutch Golden Age: Musical Culture in the Netherlands 1580-1670
Jan W. J. Burgers
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
The lute’s cultural impact throughout the Dutch Golden Age can be compared to that of the piano in the 19th century. It was the universal instrument for solo music-making, as well as in ensembles and to accompany singers, mainly associated with the social elite - the aristocracy and the prosperous burghers. This richly illustrated book is the first to showcase famous and obscure lutenists, professional musicians and amateurs, the lute music in books and manuscripts, the lute makers and the international lute trade, while also exploring the place of the instrument in the Dutch literature and art of the period.
dutch golden age And the upward movement of the other hand That the spinning woman has to watch And that she gives all her attention; In harmony with that quick, gentle motion The hand that moves the wheel must pull, not strike. In brief, coordination is what it’s all about. Lutenists, even without exerting your mind too much I know you will easily understand what I mean; Treat your lute, strung with purest strings, As if she were a maid: in friendship, not with force. On the
in different keys, and a section of two quires mainly of melodies on which to base variations (for instance, simple versions of the well-known tune Fortuna Anglese, again in different keys), as well as written-out accompaniments to polyphonic balletti by Gastoldi, which were top hits of the day. To judge by the handwriting this second part was written over a short period. It may have served as a supplement to the rather lean content of the book intended for Leenaerts, which even so still
size and shape, the width of the neck, the sharp angle of the peg box and the fact that they are played without plectrum – the instrument would have been strung with gut strings. But then there is the obvious cittern-like length of the neck and the metal frets of unequal width that are so typical of the cittern. Whether the back is concave as in a lute, or flat as in a cittern, cannot be seen in the painting. The external characteristics of the instruments have led the authors to conclude that De
fingering signs for left and right hand in the tablature, which are all given in dots and dashes. One dot or two dashes under a tablature letter indicates that that note should be plucked with the right-hand index finger or middle finger respectively. One, two, three or four dots next to a letter give the fingers of the left hand that should press the strings on the fingerboard. This system of plucking and fingering is more detailed than usual in other lute books of the period, and the double
alrehande saken ende oic van een luyt een clavicord […] ende een harp die mijn genadige vrouwe gehadt hadde [various things and also for a lute and a clavichord […] and a harp that my most gracious Lady acquired]. In other words, a lute, a clavichord (a stringed keyboard instrument) and a harp were bought on behalf of the duchess. The lute-playing lady was Elizabeth van Görlitz (1390-1451), married in 1418 to Jan of Bavaria (1374-1425), youngest son of the abovementioned Duke Albrecht of Bavaria.