The Biology of Vines
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The climbing habit in plants has apparently evolved numerous times. Species that climb are well represented in habitats ranging from tropical rain forests through temperate forests to semi-deserts. The Biology of Vines, first published in 1992, is a treatment of what is known about climbing plants, written by a group of experts and covering topics ranging from the biomechanics of twining to silvicultural methods for controlling vine infestations. Also included are detailed accounts of climbing plant evolution, stem anatomy and function, climbing mechanics, carbon and water relations, reproductive ecology, the role of vines in forest communities and their economic importance. The chapters are based on research on herbaceous vines and woody climbers (lianas) in both temperate and tropical zones, deserts and rain-forests and Old and New World areas. Much remains to be learned about the biology of these plants, but this volume provides a substantial foundation upon which further research can be based.
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work. Research/Resources Management Report SER-55. National Park Service, Southeast Region, Gatlinburg, Tenn. Wilhelm, G. S . ( 1 984) . Vascular Flora of the Pensacola Region. PhD dissertation, Southern Illinois University. Woodson, R. E . ( 1 933) . Studies in the Apocynaceae IV. The American genera of Echitoideae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 20: 605-790 . Yatskievych, G. & Yatskievych, K . ( 1 987) . A floristic survey of the Yellow Birch Ravine Nature Preserve, Crawford County,
conductive area (0.36 mm2 per mm2 of transection) exceeds a third of the secondary xylem area. This figure is confirmed in Lardizabala ceae (Carlquist, 1 984c), although a relatively high number of vessels per mm2 characterizes the lianas in that family. 59 s. Corlquist The implication in all of the above studies is clear that because vines are not self-supporting, 'fibrous ' cells (imperforate tracheary elements) comprise a smaller proportion of wood of scandent dicotyledons than they do in
the stem. Criiger ( 1 850, 1 85 1 ) suggested that living parenchyma tissues stay alive for a long time and aid in stem flexibility. Gentry ( 1 985) noted that Acanthaceae (Mendoncia), Aristolochiaceae, Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Polygalaceae (Securidaca) all have complex anatomy and 'are among the softest-wooded and most flexible of all Panamanian lianas' . More recently, Dobbins & Fisher ( 1 986) hypothesized that anomalous anatomy plays a role in promoting the healing of injured stems. In
perturbation of the plant. Heat pulse methods measure the water flow velocity, which has to be related accurately to water mass flow (Swanson & Whitfield, 1 98 1 ; Edwards & Warwick, 1 984; Green & Clothier, 1 988), while steady state heat flow methods determine the mass flow of xylem water directly ( C ermak, Deml & Penka, 1 973; Sakuratani, 1 984). Recently, a principle introduced by C ermak et al. ( 1 973) was applied to the study of water flow rate through stems of naturally growing lianas