Records of the Grand Historian: Qin Dynasty
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
Sima Qian (145?-90? BCE) was the first major Chinese historian. His Shiji, or Records of the Grand Historian, documents the history of China and its neighboring countries from the ancient past to his own time. These three volumes cover the Qin and Han dynasties.
presented material dealing with the founding and early years of the Han, the dynasty under which the historian lived and worked. In the present volume I have moved backward in time somewhat to focus on the chapters of Sima Qian’s work that relate to the preceding Qin, or Ch’in, dynasty, founded in 221 BC when the king of the state of Qin brought all of China under his rule and assumed the title of First Emperor of the Qin. The First Emperor, long regarded as one of the most influential and
King Helü of Wu and Wu Zixu attacked Chu. King Zhao of Chu fled to the state of Sui and the Wu forces eventually entered the Chu capital of Ying. The Chu grandee Shen Baoxu went to Qin to report the emergency, refusing to eat for seven days and for seven days and nights wailing and lamenting. Finally Qin agreed to dispatch a force 44 of 500 war chariots to rescue Chu. They defeated the Wu army, which returned to Wu, and King Zhao was at last able to re-enter the capital city of Ying (505 BC).
Zhaoxiang twenty-first year: Sima Cuo attacked the Henei area of Wei. Wei presented the city of Anyi to Qin. Qin expelled the inhabitants and moved its own people to the area east of the Yellow River, bestowing noble ranks and pardoning criminals in order to facilitate the move. The ducal son Shi, Lord Jingyang, 55 was enfeoffed in Wan. Twenty-second year: Meng Wu attacked Qi. Nine districts were created in the area east of the Yellow River. The Qin ruler met with the king of Chu at Wan, and
BC): in the tenth month Bai Qi, Lord Wuan, was accused of a crime, reduced to the rank of common soldier, and exiled to Yinmi. Zhang Tang attacked Zheng and captured it. In the twelfth month more troops were sent to reinforce the army outside the city of Fencheng. Bai Qi, Lord Wuan, was accused of further crimes and put to death. Wang He attacked Handan but failed to capture it. He withdrew and fled with his troops to the army at Fencheng. Two or more months later he attacked the Wei army,
within their domains on members of their own families or meritorious officials, until China became a veritable patchwork of tiny political entities. Over the centuries, however, the better governed of these small feudal domains absorbed their weaker neighbors, until at times they came to pose a serious threat to the ruling family of the state in which they were situated, or to the Zhou kings themselves. This happened notably in the states of Jin and Qi, where ministerial families in time actually