Andrew Heywood

Language: English

Pages: 520

ISBN: 0230363385

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

The fully revised and updated fourth edition of this highly successful text offers a truly comprehensive introduction to the study of politics, written from an international perspective





















pivotal moment in the transfer of power in the global economy from the West to the East in general, and from the USA to China in particular. Much of the growth in the world economy in the two decades preceding the Crash had, anyway, been generated by the economic emergence of China, India, Brazil and other developing-world economies; in part, because their ability to produce cheap manufactured goods concealed the structural defects from which many developed economies were suffering. In addition,

education and a stress on active citizenship. The alleged decline in social capital in modern society has been linked, variously, to the ‘parenting deficit’, the rise of individualism and the increase in social and geographical mobility. ‘ruling’ ideology may provide a dominant class with self-belief and a sense of purpose, it is less clear, as Abercrombie et al., (1980) argued, that subordinate classes have been successfully integrated into this value system. Finally, the Marxist view, which

can we establish what is ‘true’ democracy, ‘true’ freedom or ‘true’ justice? The simple answer is that we cannot. Just as with the attempt to define ‘politics’, we have to accept that there are competing versions of many political concepts. Such concepts are best regarded as ‘essentially contested’ concepts (Gallie, 1955/56), in that controversy about them runs so deep that no neutral or settled definition can ever be developed. In effect, a single term can represent a number of rival concepts,

covers attempts to apply democratic principles to the workplace, ranging from profit-sharing and the use of workers’ councils to full workers’ self-management. Representative democracy is a limited and indirect form of democracy. It is limited in that popular participation in government is infrequent and brief, being restricted to the act of voting every few years. It is indirect in that the public do not exercise power themselves; they merely select those who will rule on their behalf. This

must also be guaranteed by a strictly enforced separation of powers via the creation of a separate executive, legislature and judiciary, and by the maintenance of basic rights and freedoms, such as freedom of expression, freedom of movement, and freedom 96 POLITICS Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832) UK philosopher, legal reformer and founder of utilitarianism. Bentham developed a moral and philosophical system that was based on the idea that human beings are rationally self-interested creatures or

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