People and Wildlife, Conflict or Co-existence? (Conservation Biology)
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
As humans continue to encroach into natural habitats, and conservation efforts restore wildlife to areas where they have been absent, contact between humans and wild animals is growing. Some species, even the endangered, can have serious impacts on human lives and livelihoods. Tigers kill people, elephants destroy crops and African wild dogs devastate sheep herds left unattended. This book presents a variety of solutions to human-wildlife conflicts, including novel and traditional farming practices, controlled hunting and tourism, as well as the development of local and national conservation policies.
assessment of the situation and the attacking animal’s behaviour. Prior to unprovoked predatory attack people are typically approached as prey; such approaches are often silent and a person may see or hear the predator, or only feel it, as it attacks. The animal may, however, be uncertain regarding the person, approaching to find out more. If the approaching animal has been given right of way and yet still approaches, now is the time to let the animal know you are capable of hurting it if it
1996; Jackson and Nowell 1996; Sunde et al. 1998). For example, safari hunters participating in Zimbabwe’s CAMPFIRE programme (see Leader-Williams and Hutton, Chapter 9) prefer to hunt mature bull elephants amidst wild habitat than to shoot younger animals amidst maize fields. As a result, licenses to hunt crop-raiding elephants are offered at a discount (Murombedzi 1992). Second, private hunters may be less well trained or use less effective killing methods than professional wildlife removal
circumstances, the rural poor have little choice but to discount the future heavily and focus on immediate personal benefit rather than long-term communal or societal welfare, whilst the powerful minority are able to exploit the system to their own advantage (Western and Wright 1994; Murphree 1995). Many commentators advocate the decentralization of land tenure and wildlife proprietorship to the community, with the justification that giving communities ownership engenders responsibility (Lynch
communities. However, conflicts with wildlife may well occur on private land (Conover 2002), for example by herbivores that compete with livestock or damage crops (Conover 2002) (Box 9.1) or top charismatic predators that prey on livestock (Rabinowitz, Chapter 17) (Box 9.2). In situations where extractive use is sanctioned for private landowners, it is easier to disentangle their land-use decisions than it is for communities around protected areas. Could extractive use help to offset conflicts?
the focus on conflicts, we tend to forget that there are many human activities with which large carnivores need not necessarily come into conflict. Despite public misperception, wilderness is not always necessary for large carnivore conservation. Industries based on harvesting natural resources such as fishing, logging and harvest of wild ungulates need not conflict with large carnivores if they are carefully regulated (Fritts et al. 1994). Even extraction industries need not have direct negative