Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine 7/E
Gary D. Hammer, Stephen J. McPhee
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
A full-color, case-based review of the essentials of pathophysiology--covering all major organs and systems
The goal of this trusted text is to introduce you to clinical medicine by reviewing the pathophysiologic basis of 120 diseases (and associated signs and symptoms) commonly encountered in medical practice. The authors, all experts in their respective fields, have provided a concise review of relevant normal structure and function of each body system, followed by a description of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie several common diseases related to that system.
Each chapter of Pathophysiology of Disease concludes with a collection of case studies and questions designed to test your understanding of the pathophysiology of each clinical entity discussed. These case studies allow you to apply your knowledge to specific clinical situations. Detailed answers to each case study question are provided at the end of the book. This unique interweaving of physiological and pathological concepts will put you on the path toward thinking about signs and symptoms in terms of their pathophysiologic basis, giving you an understanding of the "why" behind illness and treatment.
- 120 case studies (9 new) provide an opportunity for you to test your understanding of the pathophysiology of each clinical entity discussed
- Checkpoint questions provide review and appear in every chapter
- Updates and revisions throughout this new edition reflect the latest research and developments
- Numerous tables and diagrams encapsulate important information
- Updated references for each chapter topic
Pathophysiology of Disease is a true must-have resource for medical students preparing for the USMLE Step 1 exam, as well as students engaged in their clerkship studies. House officers, nurses, nurse practitioners, physicians’ assistants, and allied health practitioners will find its concise presentation and broad scope a great help in facilitating their understanding of common disease entities.
commissure and entering the spinothalamic tracts are most centrally situated. Thus, enlargement of the central cervical canal in syringomyelia typically causes loss of pain and temperature sensation across the shoulders and upper arms (Figure 7-21). FIGURE 7-20 Brown-Séquard syndrome with lesion at left tenth thoracic level (motor deficits not shown). (Redrawn, with permission, from Waxman SG. Neuroanatomy with Clinical Correlations, 25th ed. McGraw-Hill, 2003.) FIGURE 7-21 Syringomyelia
the ability of the neuron to extrude or sequester the cation. This results in sustained activation of a variety of calcium-sensitive enzymes, including proteases, phospholipases, and endonucleases, leading to cell death. In support of an excitotoxic mechanism of cell death in stroke are animal studies that demonstrate a reduction in the size of ischemic lesions after treatment with glutamate receptor antagonists. CHECKPOINT 45. What are the differences between the clinical presentation of
dystrophy, tuberous sclerosis, and maternal systemic lupus erythematosus and in acquired disorders such as sarcoidosis, gout, Lyme disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, and coronary artery disease. FIGURE 10-11 Rhythm strip demonstrating third-degree (complete) heart block with no association between atrial activity (arrows) and ventricular activity (dots). Bradycardia resulting from either decreased automaticity or blocked conduction requires evaluation to search
experimental animals and judiciously in humans by infusing the pressor drug phenylephrine at different doses and at each dose measuring the slowing of the heart rate by determining the interval between the R waves (RR interval) of the ECG. An example of results of this type of testing is shown in Figure 11-14. FIGURE 11-14 Baroreflex-mediated lowering of the heart rate during infusion of phenylephrine in a human subject. Note that the values for the RR interval of the ECG, which are plotted
signaling through toll-like receptors (TLRs), specifically increasing the pro-inflammatory signaling of SLE antigens containing nucleic acids through TLR 3, 7, and 9. Additionally, type I interferons sensitize target cells to death through various inflammatory effector pathways, increasing the antigen load presented to the immune system. C. Flares One of the characteristic features of an immune response is the establishment of immunologic memory, so that when the organism again encounters