Inside Out India and China: Local Politics Go Global (Brookings Focus Books)
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One third of humanity is governed by two capitals, New Delhi and Beijing. Increasingly, these two countries are being led not from the top down, but rather from the Inside Out.
In 2014, India overwhelmingly elected Narendra Modi minister, a man who rose to national prominence as chief minister of Gujarat, India's fastest growing state. Likewise, in 2013, Xi Jinping took over as president of China, having served as top official in Zhejiang and Shanghai, two of China's most prosperous provinces.
Anticipating these trends and leadership transitions, William Antholis spent five months in 2012 traversing twenty Indian states and Chinese provinces, conducting over three hundred interviews, including with Narendra Modi. Antholis's detailed narratives show what both Modi and Xi Jinping learned firsthand: that local successes—and failures—will determine the future of the world's largest two nations. And his new forword, prepared for this edition, lays out key takeaways from the transitions of 2013 and 2014.
constituent states. The federalist founders of the United States embraced states as laboratories of democracy. Modern China’s revolutionaries feared “warlords’ separatist regimes.”10 The central government tightly holds onto the reins of power when it comes to national security and nearly all diplomatic relations. The People’s Liberation Army does not even report to the top government ofﬁcials but rather only to the top leaders of the Chinese Communist Party, especially the party secretary (who
rising national political leader, a tour of duty in the badlands of Tibet, Xinjiang, or Inner Mongolia can launch a career. Serving in China’s “wild west” has been the ultimate proving ground for a would-be leader’s patriotism, personal sacriﬁce, and effectiveness. Xinjiang’s Young Turks: Quite a Riot In July 2009, the city of Urumqi—the capital of massive Xinjiang province—burst onto the global scene. The local Uyghur population rioted, attacking not only police and government buildings but
renewable and other low-carbon energy sources—especially hydropower, wind, solar, and nuclear. However, each of those low-carbon energy sources is found in a different region of China. With the exception of hydropower, the supply does not meet demand—quantitatively and geographically. Let us start with the exception: hydropower. China is already the world’s largest producer in total (though not in percentage terms), with hydropower supplying 6 percent of the country’s energy while wind and other
suspected of precipitating the earthquake.29 In Tibet, Sichuan, and Yunnan provinces, some of the rivers being dammed ﬂow south into India, Bangladesh, Burma, and Thailand. This creates border tensions—especially since those nations are thinking about building their own dams. The country’s massive solar and wind production build-out is only now starting to be used domestically. Most of that use is in the arid and windy north and west—in Inner Mongolia as well as Gansu, Xinjiang, and Hebei. Wind
automotive powerhouses developing in Ahmadabad, Pune, and Chennai that will connect directly with Detroit. As M. Velmurugan, the head of Chennai’s foreign investment ofﬁce, explained to me, Ford Motor Company’s decision to build its India manufacturing facility in Chennai was the single most important decision in turning Tamil Nadu into a manufacturing state in India. “That would not have happened had it not been for an active and engaged U.S. consulate.”12 That single investment led to the