Immunology, Fifth Edition

Immunology, Fifth Edition

Richard A. Goldsby, Thomas J. Kindt, Janis Kuby

Language: English

Pages: 603

ISBN: 0716749475

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

The new edition of the acclaimed bestseller, always praised for offering cutting edge material in the context of landmark experiments, in a student friendly format built on pedagogy not usually found in immunology texts.












peptide-binding cleft in class I and II MHC molecules, it is not surprising that they exhibit some common peptide-binding features (Table 7-2). In both types of MHC molecules, peptide ligands are held in a largely extended conformation that runs the length of the cleft. The peptide-binding cleft in class I molecules is blocked at both ends, whereas the cleft is open in class II molecules (Figure 7-10). As a result of this difference, class I molecules bind peptides that typically contain 8–10

sac during the first weeks of development. Here, yolk-sac stem cells differentiate into primitive erythroid cells that contain embryonic hemoglobin. In the third month of gestation, hematopoietic stem cells migrate from the yolk sac to the fetal liver and then to the spleen; these two organs have major roles in hematopoiesis from the third to the seventh months of gestation. After that, the differentiation of HSCs in the bone marrow becomes the major factor in hematopoiesis, and by birth there is

interact with a complex antigen on several levels of antigen structure. An epitope on a protein antigen may involve elements of the primary, secondary, tertiary, and even quaternary structure of the protein (see Figure 3-1). In polysaccharides, branched chains are commonly present, and multiple branches may contribute to the conformation of epitopes. The recognition of antigens by T cells and B cells is fundamentally different (Table 3-4). B cells recognize soluble antigen when it binds to their

their antigen-binding specificities, and therefore their exact amino acid sequences, are very different. The population of antibodies in the serum ␥-globulin fraction consists of a heterogeneous spectrum of antibodies. Even if immunization is done with a hapten-carrier conjugate, the antibodies formed just to the hapten alone are heterogeneous: they recognize different epitopes of the hapten and have different binding affinities. This heterogeneity of serum antibodies made them unsuitable for

complexed with a class I MHC molecule are called altered self-cells; these are targets of CTLs. ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS Activation of both the humoral and cell-mediated branches of the immune system requires cytokines produced by TH cells. It is essential that activation of TH cells themselves be carefully regulated, because an inappropriate T-cell response to self-components can have fatal autoimmune consequences. To ensure carefully regulated activation of TH cells, they can recognize only

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