Human Embryology and Developmental Biology: With STUDENT CONSULT Online Access, 5e
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
Master the concepts you need to know with Human Embryology and Developmental Biology. Dr. Bruce M. Carlson's clear explanations provide an easy-to-follow "road map" through the most up-to-date scientific knowledge, giving you a deeper understanding of the key information you need to know for your courses, exams, and ultimately clinical practice.
- Visualize normal and abnormal development
- Access the fully searchable text online, view animations, answer self-assessment questions, and much more at www.studentconsult.com.
with hundreds of superb clinical photos and embryological drawings.
- Grasp the molecular basis of embryology
- Understand the clinical manifestations of developmental abnormalities with clinical vignettes and Clinical Correlations boxes throughout.
, including the processes of branching and folding - essential knowledge for determining the root of many abnormalities.
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drugs, and some infectious agents can pass from the maternal blood into the fetal circulation and interfere with normal development. If a fetus is Rh positive and the mother is Rh negative, maternal anti-Rh antibodies from a previous pregnancy can pass to the fetus to cause erythroblastosis fetalis. The placenta produces a wide variety of hormones, many of which are normally synthesized in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland. The first hormone released is HCG, which serves as the
hormone (GnRH, LHRH) Decapeptide Stimulates release of LH and FSH by anterior pituitary Prolactin-inhibiting factor Dopamine Inhibits release of prolactin by anterior pituitary Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Glycoprotein (α and β subunits) (MW ≈35,000) Male: Stimulates Sertoli cells to produce androgen-binding protein Female: Stimulates follicle cells to produce estrogen Luteinizing hormone (LH) Glycoprotein (α and β subunits) (MW ≈28,000) Male: Stimulates Leydig cells to secrete
chromosomal abnormalities, J Hum Genet 54:253-260, 2009. Lie PPY and others: Coordinating cellular events during spermatogenesis: a biochemical model, Trends Biochem Sci 334:366-373, 2009. Lin Y and others: Germ cell–intrinsic and –extrinsic factors govern meiotic initiation in mouse embryos, Science 322:1685-1687, 2008. Liu K and others: Control of mammalian oocyte growth and early follicular development by the oocyte PI3 kinase pathway: new roles for an old timer, Dev Biol 299:1-11, 2006.
Transcription Factors The zinc finger family of transcription factors consists of proteins with regularly placed cystidine and histidine units that are bound by zinc ions to cause the polypeptide chain to pucker into fingerlike structures (Fig. 4.9). These “fingers” can be inserted into specific regions in the DNA helix. SOX GENES The Sox genes comprise a large family (>20 members) that have in common an HMG (high-mobility group) domain on the protein. This domain is unusual for a transcription
results in a broad spectrum of severe congenital anomalies that can involve the face, eye, hindbrain, limbs, or urogenital system. It was only in the 1990s, when the binding proteins and receptors for the retinoids were characterized and the development of various knockouts was investigated, that specific clues to the function of vitamin A in embryogenesis began to emerge. Vitamin A enters the body of the embryo as retinol and binds to a retinol-binding protein, which attaches to specific cell