Historical Dictionary of Ancient Greek Philosophy (Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements Series)
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The ancient Greeks were not only the founders of western philosophy, but the actual term "philosophy" is Greek in origin, most likely dating back to the late sixth century BC. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, Euclid, and Thales are but a few of the better-known philosophers of ancient Greece. During the amazingly fertile period running from roughly the middle of the first millennium BC to the middle of the first millennium AD, the world saw the rise of science, numerous schools of thought, and—many believe—the birth of modern civilization.
This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Ancient Greek Philosophy covers the history of Greek philosophy through a chronology, an introductory essay, a glossary, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 1500 cross-referenced entries on important philosophers, concepts, issues, and events. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Greek philosophy.
Philosophers (first published in 1948 and still in print at Harvard University Press) is perhaps the best example of a volume that attempts to do just that. It is 174 pages long, including a fair amount of material in addition to the translations. 5. Herodotus Book II. 6. C. Kahn, The Art and Thought of Heraclitus, Cambridge, 1979, is a good place to find out more about Heraclitus. 7. P. Curd, The Legacy of Parmenides, Princeton, 1998, explains the arguments and their consequences very well. 8.
Philo’s students, Antiochus of Ascalon, had philosophical disagreements with Philo (recounted by Cicero), and is said by Numenius to have “founded another Academy.” Cicero studied with Antiochus in Athens in 79 BCE, but does not say much about the physical location of that instruction. The next snapshot of Platonic instruction in Athens comes from 66/7 CE, when Plutarch of Chaeronea (46–c. 122 CE) studied Platonism with a philosopher named Ammonius. Although Plutarch did a great deal to revive
Indefinite. In Stoic logic, used of a sentence with an indefinite article as subject or predicate. See also LOGIKE¯. APATHEIA. Condition of being unaffected. For Aristotle, it is important that the mind (nous) is “unaffected,” in contrast to the sense organs, which are affected by external causes (de An. III.4–6). For the Stoics, pathe¯ are unnatural physical processes that interfere with rational behavior; thus, a condition of apatheia is much to be desired. APAXIA. Stoic term for “disvalue.”
be credited with anticipating the Neopythagorean movement, which really got rolling about 100 years after his death. FINAL CAUSE. See TELOS. FIRE. See PYR, STOICHEION, TECHNIKOS. FIRST MOVER. See ARCHE¯ KINE¯SEO¯ S, PRO¯ TON KINOUN. FIRST PHILOSOPHY. See PRO¯ TE¯ PHILOSOPHIA. FORM. See EIDOS; IDEA; MORPHE¯. For a brief discussion of Plato’s Theory of Forms, see EIDOS. FORMAL CAUSE. Aristotle distinguishes four “causes” (aitia) or modes of explanation: matter (hyle¯), mover (kinoun), form (eidos),
him and then to construct a theory that would be able to withstand the criticisms coming from alternative positions held by other physicians of his time. GALEN OF PERGAMUM • 117 The predominant philosophical schools (or tendencies) of the second century were Platonism, Aristotelianism, Stoicism, Epicureanism, and Skepticism. The medical sects (or tendencies) were Empiricist, Methodist, and Dogmatic (or Rationalist). There is no simple correspondence between the philosophical groups and the