Handbook of Physics in Medicine and Biology
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In considering ways that physics has helped advance biology and medicine, what typically comes to mind are the various tools used by researchers and clinicians. We think of the optics put to work in microscopes, endoscopes, and lasers; the advanced diagnostics permitted through magnetic, x-ray, and ultrasound imaging; and even the nanotools, that allow us to tinker with molecules. We build these instruments in accordance with the closest thing to absolute truths we know, the laws of physics, but seldom do we apply those same constants of physics to the study of our own carbon-based beings, such as fluidics applied to the flow of blood, or the laws of motion and energy applied to working muscle.
Instead of considering one aspect or the other, Handbook of Physics in Medicine and Biology explores the full gamut of physics’ relationship to biology and medicine in more than 40 chapters, written by experts from the lab to the clinic.
The book begins with a basic description of specific biological features and delves into the physics of explicit anatomical structures starting with the cell. Later chapters look at the body's senses, organs, and systems, continuing to explain biological functions in the language of physics.
The text then details various analytical modalities such as imaging and diagnostic methods. A final section turns to future perspectives related to tissue engineering, including the biophysics of prostheses and regenerative medicine.
The editor’s approach throughout is to address the major healthcare challenges, including tissue engineering and reproductive medicine, as well as development of artificial organs and prosthetic devices. The contents are organized by organ type and biological function, which is given a clear description in terms of electric, mechanical, thermodynamic, and hydrodynamic properties. In addition to the physical descriptions, each chapter discusses principles of related clinical diagnostic methods and technological aspects of therapeutic applications. The final section on regenerative engineering, emphasizes biochemical and physiochemical factors that are important to improving or replacing biological functions. Chapters cover materials used for a broad range of applications associated with the replacement or repair of tissues or entire tissue structures.
to the myelination of optic nerve fibers and also to the formation of septum, which consists of connective tissue. 1. Hogan MJ, Al varado SA, and Weddcl SE. Histology of the Human Eye. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders; 1971. 2. Snell RS and Lemp, MA. Clinical Anatomy of the Eye. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publication; 1989. 3. Vogelsang K. 100 years of Helmholtz’ accommodation theory. Klin Monatsblatter Augenheilkd Augenarztl Fortbild 126(6): 762–765; 1955. 4. Kaufman PL. Adler’s Physiology of the
to R4, and is therefore very sensitive to the tube radius when the pressure gradient is fi xed. The average velocity ua is calculated by dividing the flow rate by the cross-section as ua = − R 2 dp , 8μ d z (17.29) which is half of the maximum velocity on the axis. 17.5.3 Turbulent Flow When the flow is turbulent, the velocity profi le changes chaotically in time and space, but discussing the time-averaged velocity is warranted to better understand the flow characteristics. The time-averaged
proteins, Science 2008, 320 (5884), 1730–1731. 60. Hurley, J. K., Tollin, G., Medina, M., and Gomez-Moreno, C., Electron transfer from ferredoxin and flavodoxin to ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, In: Golbeck, J. H. (Ed.), Photosystem I, the Light-Driven Platocyanin:Ferredoxin Oxireductase, pp. 455–476, 2006, Springer, Dordrecht. 61. Northrup, S. H., Kollipara, S., and Pathirathne, T., Simulation of rates of electron transfer between proteins cytochrome b5 reductase and cytochrome b5, 60th Southeast
endings. Using this approach, three classes of nociceptors can be distinguished on the basis of the type of the activating stimulus: mechanical and thermal, activated by a 8-14 Physics of Perception Pain intensity Blunt object Aﬀerent ﬁber recording “First” pain “Second” pain C Force Ad Ad C Time Pinprick Aﬀerent ﬁber recording FIGURE 8.16 Schematic representation of sharp and aching pain. “First” (sharp) and “second” (aching) pain are carried by two different primary afferent
chains that are predominantly unsaturated. These unsaturated chains allow sphingolipids to pack together closely and form a more solid gel phase within the liquid-disordered glycerophospholipid environment. Cholesterol commonly exists in sphingolipid domains and causes them to transform into a liquid-ordered phase wherein lipids are tightly packed with freedom to diff use laterally. These liquid-ordered phases or lipid rafts7 exist only in the outer membrane leaflet and are connected to