Handbook of Bioenergy Economics and Policy (Natural Resource Management and Policy)
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Concerns about energy security, uncertainty about oil prices, declining oil reserves, and global climate change are fueling a shift towards bioenergy as a renewable alternative to fossil fuels. Public policies and private investments around the globe are aiming to increase local capacity to produce biofuels. A key constraint to the expansion of biofuel production is the limited amount of land available to meet the needs for fuel, feed, and food in the coming decades. Large-scale biofuel production raises concerns about food versus fuel tradeoffs, about demands for natural resources such as water, and about potential impacts on environmental quality.
The book is organized into five parts. The introductory part provides a context for the emerging economic and policy challenges related to bioenergy and the motivations for biofuels as an energy source. The second part of the handbook includes chapters that examine the implications of expanded production of first generation biofuels for the allocation of land between food and fuel and for food/feed prices and trade in biofuels as well as the potential for technology improvements to mitigate the food vs. fuel competition for land. Chapters in the third part examine the infrastructural and logistical challenges posed by large scale biofuel production and the factors that will influence the location of biorefineries and the mix of feedstocks they use. The fourth part includes chapters that examine the environmental implications of biofuels, their implications for the design of policies and the unintended environmental consequences of existing biofuel policies. The final part presents economic analysis of the market, social welfare, and distributional effects of biofuel policies.
sustainability of the perennial growth habit. 3.1 Introduction In 2005, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) released the “Billion Ton Study,” which investigated the feasibility of producing 1 billion tons of biomass annually in the United States by 2030 for conversion into liquid fuels such as ethanol (Perlack et al. 2005). This amount of biomass is expected to produce enough fuel to displace 30% of US petroleum usage. The “Billion Ton Study” breaks down
recombinant S. cerevisiae strains to fermentation inhibitors generated during pretreatment and hydrolysis of the lignocellulosic feedstock still exist. Many laboratories, including those of the authors, are currently involved in research directed toward development of osmo- and inhibitor-tolerant fermenting microorganisms. 4.2 Advantages of Lignocellulosic-Based Biofuels Cellulosic biomass represents the most abundant renewable energy resource on the planet. The “Billion Ton Study” published by
retroactive to May. Also, exports will be reduced by the anticipated tariff for exports into the European Union. As for the rest of the world, the projections in Table 7.1 are highly empirical, based upon trends beginning around 2000. The projections for ethanol are only for ethanol produced from coarse grain and wheat, which will be about half the total − the remainder mostly from sugarcane in Brazil. The essence of the new 5-year Farm bill labeled “Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008” is
2011 Table 7.3 (continued) 44 30 14 292 12,780 3.48 6.92 0.02 1.12 0.871 11.55 2013 46 32 14 310 13,474 3.76 6.96 0.02 1.17 0.897 11.90 2015 47 32 14 354 14,290 3.99 6.98 0.02 1.21 0.935 12.20 2017 98 J. (Jake) Ferris and S. Joshi 7 Prospects for Ethanol and Biodiesel, 2008 to 2017 99 7.4 Key Biofuel Projections Vegetable oils, with soybean oil predominant, are the preferred feedstocks for biodiesel production because of the low free fatty acid content. However, beginning in
http://www.wilsoncenter.org/ news/docs/brazil.oecd.biofuel.support.policy.pdf Accessed February 2009 Searchinger T, Heimlich R, Houghton R, et al. (2008) Factoring greenhouse gas emissions from land use change into biofuel calculations.Science (February 29):1238–1240. Tokgoz S,Elobeid A,Fabiosa J, et al.(2008)Bottlenecks, drought, and oil price spikes: Impact on US ethanol and agricultural sectors.Rev Agr Econ 30(4):604–622. Tokgoz S, Elobeid A, Fabiosa J, et al. (2007) Emerging biofuels: Outlook