Genetics For Dummies

Genetics For Dummies

Tara Rodden Robinson

Language: English

Pages: 385

ISBN: 0470551747

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


Reveals the connections between genetics and specific diseases
Understand the science and the ethics behind genetics
Want to know more about genetics? This non-intimidating guide gets you up to speed on all the fundamentals. From dominant and recessive inherited traits to the DNA double-helix, you get clear explanations in easy-to-understand terms. Plus, you'll see how people are applying genetic science to fight disease, develop new products, solve crimes . . . and even clone cats.
Discover: * What geneticists do * How traits are passed on * How genetic counseling works * The basics of cloning * The role of DNA in forensics * The scoop on the Human Genome Project

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

..............................................................................161 Chapter 12: Genetic Counseling ..................................................................................175 Chapter 13: Mutation and Inherited Diseases ...........................................................189 Chapter 14: The Genetics of Cancer ...........................................................................203 Chapter 15: Chromosome Disorders

¾ S_ bbS_ ¼ x ¾ = 3⁄16 White Smooth ¼ ss bbss ¼ x ¼ = 1⁄16 White Curly ¾ B_ Black ¼ bb White The phenotypic ratio observed in Lucy and Ricky’s offspring (9:3:3:1; see Figure 3-6) is typical for the F2 generation in a dihybrid cross. The rarest phenotype is the one that’s recessive for both traits; in this case, white and curly are both recessive. The most common phenotype is the one that is dominant for both traits. The fact that nine of your sixteen baby guinea pigs are black and smooth

of DNA. Covering the bases Each DNA molecule contains thousands of copies of four specific nitrogenrich bases: ߜ Adenine (A) ߜ Guanine (G) ߜ Thymine (T) ߜ Cytosine (C) 83 84 Part II: DNA: The Genetic Material As you can see in Figure 6-1, the bases are comprised of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), and oxygen (O) atoms. Purines Pyrimidines O NH2 C Figure 6-1: The four DNA bases. N C HC C C N HN C C C Adenine (A) N H C N CH3 C HN CH N C CH CH N O NH2 H2N N

genome. Perhaps the greatest take-home message of the HGP is how alike all life on earth really is. Sequencing: Reading the Language of DNA The chemical nature of DNA (which I cover in Chapter 6) and the replication process (which you can discover in Chapter 7) are essential to DNA sequencing. DNA sequencing also makes use of a reaction that’s similar to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) used in forensics; if you want more details about PCR, check out Chapter 18. Identifying the players in

1,000 bases. Prior to the Human Genome Project, sequencing was a very difficult and time-consuming enterprise. Getting a 1,000-base long sequence required about three days of work and used radioactive chemicals instead of dyes. Sequences were read by hand and had to be run over and over again to fill in gaps and correct mistakes. Every single sequence had to be entered into the computer by hand — imagine typing thousands of As, Gs, Ts, and Cs! It would have taken centuries to sequence the human

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