Functional Surfaces in Biology: Adhesion Related Phenomena Volume 2

Functional Surfaces in Biology: Adhesion Related Phenomena Volume 2

Stanislav N. Gorb

Language: English

Pages: 275

ISBN: 9400791658

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


This book is devoted to the rapidly growing area of science dealing with structure and properties of biological surfaces in their relation to particular function(s). This volume, written by a team of specialists from different disciplines, covers various surface functions such as protection, defense, water transport, anti-wetting, self cleaning, light reflection and scattering, and acoustics. Because biological surfaces have a virtually endless potential of technological ideas for the development of new materials and systems, inspirations from biology could also be interesting for a broad range of topics in surface engineering.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

constant from one echinoderm taxon to another (Fig. 1.8C, D). The cytoplasm of de-adhesive cells also contains numerous RER cisternae, a small Golgi apparatus and longitudinally arranged microtubules. Their basal end is tapered and penetrates the nerve plexus while their apex usually bears a short subcuticular cilium (Flammang, 1996). A cuticle, consisting of fibrous and sometimes granular material, covers the epidermal cells of echinoderm tube foot adhesive areas (Fig. 1.8) (Holland and Nealson,

elaborate surface, is likely a secondary eventuality and not a driving force in the evolution of the configuration and dimensions of the gecko adhesion system. Some biological systems have developed surfaces covered with micro- and nanostructures having anti-adhesive property. It is known that wax crystalloids on the flowering shoots of plants are adaptations to prevent crawling insects from robbing nectar and other resources (Eigenbrode and Kabalo, 1999). The wax blooms of ant-plants from the

Glyptothorax pectinopterus are bottom-dwellers, predominantly nocturnal in habit and carnivorous in nature. They prefer living in fast-flowing streams having rocky-gravel substratum and are reputed to swim against the strong water current by their well-expanded pectoral and pelvic fins (Fig. 4.1). The two cyprinids Schizothorax richardsnoii and Garra gotyla gotyla differ in their habitat preference. While the former lives in places where the velocity Fig. 4.1 AO (arrowheads) of the

spines (Fig. 4.2), which are absent in the grooves. No mucous pores (outlets of mucous cells) are observed in the ridge or groove areas. LM organization: Transverse sections of the AO show the two basic layers as seen in the skin, viz., the epidermis and the dermis. The epidermis is stratified into Fig. 4.2 (a, b). Scanning electron micrographs of the AO surface in stream-catfishes, showing spines of the ridges. Bars, 15 μm 108 D. Das and T.C. Nag Fig. 4.3 (a) Light micrograph of AO of

attributes, not only of individual setae, but also of setal fields and their hierarchical control systems that activate and release the adhesive bond, suggest that contemplating them in the context of the structure of real locomotor surfaces is likely to be instructive. For that purpose we have selected the genus Rhoptropus, and in this first instance, one species in particular. 5.2 The Choice of an Exemplar Taxon Selecting an initial example to investigate the relationship between setal field

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