From DNA to Diversity: Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design

From DNA to Diversity: Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design

Sean B. Carroll

Language: English

Pages: 268

ISBN: 1405119500

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

In this landmark work, the author team led by Dr. Sean Carroll presents the general principles of the genetic basis of morphological change through a synthesis of evolutionary biology with genetics and embryology. In this extensively revised second edition, the authors delve into the latest discoveries, incorporating new coverage of comparative genomics, molecular evolution of regulatory proteins and elements, and microevolution of animal development.

  • An accessible text, focusing on the most well-known genes, developmental processes and taxa.
  • Builds logically from developmental genetics and regulatory mechanisms to evolution at different genetic morphological levels.
  • Adds major insights from recent genome studies, new evo-devo biology research findings, and a new chapter on models of variation and divergence among closely related species.
  • Provides in-depth focus on key concepts through well-developed case studies.
  • Features clear, 4-color illustrations and photographs, chapter summaries, references and a glossary.
  • Presents the research of Dr. Carroll, a pioneer in the field and the past president of the Society for Developmental Biology.

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existed. An even more remarkable fact is that all of this diversity a aardvarks and ostriches, butterflies and pythons, dinosaurs, and earthworms a descended from a common bilaterally symmetrical ancestor that lived in Precambrian seas more than 540 million years ago. Traditionally approached through paleontology, systematics, and comparative anatomy, the story of animal evolution has, until recently, been sorely missing one huge chapter a namely, genetics. Animals diverge from common ancestors

involved in the positioning and differentiation of the FDTC03 7/14/04 16:44 Page 78 78 DNA to Diversity: Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design Figure 3.13 The genetic regulatory hierarchy in the Drosophila wing (a) Two systems organize the pattern along the dorsoventral (left) and anteroposterior (right) axes of the wing. (b) Compartmental selector genes establish signaling sources along each compartment boundary. Transduction of these signals leads to the activation of

Evolution of Animal Design Figure 3.17 Segmentation and somite formation in the vertebrate embryo (a) The segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm occurs in an anterior to posterior order. (b) The mesoderm of the early vertebrate embryo shown in cross section. (c) Components and targets of the Notch signaling pathway (for example, mouse HES1) are expressed in a dynamic pattern that cycles in the presomitic mesoderm once during the generation of each pair of somites. Source: Part c adapted from

evidence indicates that the entire prebilaterian Hox complex of three FDTC04 7/14/04 16:50 Page 117 Chapter 4: Evolution of the Toolkit Number of Hox complexes Hox complex duplication Tetrapods Teleost fish Sharks Lamprey 4 6–7 + 2 3–4 Cephalochordates 1 Urochordates 1 Echinoderms 1 117 Figure 4.8 Evolution of deuterostome Hox genes The relative timing of vertebrate Hox complex duplications are indicated on a phylogenetic tree of deuterostomes. Basal deuterostomes, including

homologous structures. In the course of arthropod evolution, ancestrally similar appendages have evolved into antennae, various mouthparts, walking legs, and genital structures. In vertebrates, serially homologous vertebrae have evolved into distinct cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral vertebral types. 3. The diversification of homologous parts One of the most prevalent trends in animal evolution is the morphological diversification of homologous parts between lineages. The same structures in

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