Encyclopedia of Biological Invasions (Encyclopedias of the Natural World)
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Encyclopedia of Biological Invasions features articles on:
• Well-known invasive species such the zebra mussel, chestnut blight, cheatgrass, gypsy moth, Nile perch, giant African snail, and Norway rat
• Regions with especially large numbers of introduced species including the Great Lakes, Mediterranean Sea, Hawaiian Islands, Australia, and New Zealand.
• Conservation, ecological, economic, and human and animal health impacts of invasions around the world
• The processes and pathways involved in invasion
• Management of introduced species
flea bites, usually from the Oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheops. Three pandemics of bubonic plague—in the sixth to eighth centuries AD, during medieval times, and from the late nineteenth into the early twentieth century—are estimated to have killed more than 200 million persons. The worldwide pattern of outbreaks in ports during the last pandemic suggests that the disease was probably introduced from infected Norway rats that disembarked from sailing ships or freight vessels accompanied by X.
true seed, as an endocarp containing multiple seeds, and as a dry fruit such as an achene or a caryopsis. All of these are generally lumped as “seed dispersal” because functionally it is the dispersal of the seed that is the focus, even if it is being dispersed within a dry fruit. Some plants also can be dispersed as vegetative propagules, such as torn off stolons of Carex or bulbils of Allium, but the primary focus of this article will be on “seed” dispersal defined broadly. Dispersal syndromes
have been able to recolonize some lower-elevation forests. Much of the ability to adapt will depend on extant genetic variation, population size, gene flow, and mutation rates. Conservation strategies that preserve genetic variation in native populations by conserving large populations and promoting gene flow in increasingly fragmented landscapes may provide genetic variation on which selection can act to ameliorate negative impacts of invaders. SEE ALSO THE FOLLOWING ARTICLES Climate Change /
FOLLOWING ARTICLES Biological Control, of Plants / Cheatgrass / Enemy Release Hypothesis / Evolution of Invasive Populations / Genotypes, Invasive / Invasiveness / Propagule Pressure FURTHER READING Avice, J. C. 2004. Molecular Markers, Natural History and Evolution.Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. Ayres, D. R., F. J. Ryan, E. Grotkopp, J. Bailey, and J. Gaskin. 2009. Tumbleweed (Salsola, section Kali) species and speciation in California. Biological Invasions 11: 1175–1187. Bossdorf, O.,
may not have occurred before, done to balance the loss of a similar community or population elsewhere (such as from development). REMEDIATION Similar to mitigation, but with fewer legalistic overtones of one-for-one replacement. This can include the use of biodiversity, such as vegetation buffers, to increase ecosystem function or environmental quality (as in bioremediation). GOALS The list above comprises some of the diversity in the nature and goals of ecological restoration. Still, the most