Chinese: A Comprehensive Grammar (Routledge Comprehensive Grammars)
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Chinese: A Comprehensive Grammar is a complete reference guide to Chinese grammar which presents a fresh and accessible description of the language, concentrating on the real patterns of use in modern Chinese.
The volume is organized to promote a thorough understanding of Chinese grammar. It offers a stimulating analysis of the complexities of the language and provides full and clear explanations. Throughout, the emphasis is on Chinese as used by present-day native speakers. An extensive index and numbered paragraphs provide readers with easy access to the information they require.
The new edition features a revised and expanded chapter on prosody (Prosody and Syntax), as well as four completely new chapters:
• Morphology and Syntax (I) looks at Chinese word formation
• Morphology and Syntax (II) explores the interaction between words, expressions and sentences
• Intralingual Transpositions reviews the possible conversions between sentential constructions
• Interlingual Conversions examines the differences between Chinese and English.
The Grammar is an essential reference source for the adult learner and user of Chinese. It is ideal for independent study and for use in schools, colleges, universities and adult classes, up to an advanced level.
differences, which invariably affect their syntactic capability, are discussed in turn in §4.2 and 4.6 below. 1 2 See §4.4 for discussion of the descriptive indicator (fl de. Generally speaking, monosyllabic adjectives tend to form words or set expressions and are therefore more restrictive in their collocability, whereas disyllabic adjectives can be used freely as qualifiers (or quantifiers). Adjectives as Attributives and Predicatives 59 4.2 QUALIFIERS OR QUANTIFIERS Adjectives in
shou shi He is writing a poem. ° xuesheng zai zuo zuoye The students are doing their coursework. jiejie zai bianzhl yl jian maoyl (My) elder sister is knitting a woollen sweater. This aspectual function of 4 zai is thought to derive from its use as a coverb in locational phrases like ^JiJL zai zher 'at this place; here', 43IUL zai nar 'at that place; there', 4SC zai jia 'at home', ft^S zai xuexiao 'at school'. This may explain why the presence of a coverbal 4 zai phrase with a specified location
next year. MTR^Fft±$fc ° heshui bu zai shangzhang The river water isn't rising. 6.9 ACTION VERBS: MANNER DESCRIBED AND EXPERIENCE EXPLAINED There are two other verbal indicators which are often used with action verbs. They are |f zhe and i i guo. It is a common misunderstanding that they, like T le and ft zai, are also aspectual markers. In fact they have entirely different functions to serve. Hf zhe is suffixed to an action verb so that the resultant verbal phrase is used as a descriptive
Potential complements are therefore essentially expository. 10.2.1 ADJECTIVAL POTENTIAL COMPLEMENTS zhei zhang zhaopian fangdeda fangbuda (lit. this mw photo expand de large expand not large) Can this photograph be enlarged or not? 154 Chinese: A Comprehensive Grammar bu dai yanjing | wo kanbuqlngchu heiban shang de zi (lit. not wear glasses, I see-not-clear blackboard-on de Chinese characters) I can't see the words on the blackboard clearly without my glasses on. n %? ni nongdemingbai zhei
6.7 Agreement between an action verb and its object 6.8 Action verbs: completion and continuation 6.8.1 The completion aspect 6.8.2 The continuation aspect 6.9 Action verbs: manner described and experience explained 6.9.1 Manner of existence with J | zhe 6.9.2 Persistent posture or continuous movement with ^f zhe 6.9.3 Accompanying manner with JJ zhe 6.9.4 Experience and M guo 88 89 91 91 95 98 99 101 102 102 105 107 107 108 108 109 Action Verbs and Time 7.1 Point of time 7.2 Duration 7.3 Brief