Biology and Anatomy & Physiology Helps: The Heart (Biology and Anatomy and Physiology Helps: Book 4)
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
The Biology and Anatomy & Physiology Helps series is designed to provide a review of the objectives and vocabulary covered by many instructors. This series is in note-like format to supplement any student study guide and provides a self test at the end of each text to help with material review of the topic covered. The Biology and A&P Helps series is intended as an aid for research projects, advanced homeschoolers, AP high school students and college students in nursing, pre-med, pre-vet, biology, zoology and biochemistry.
The books in the Biology and Anatomy & Physiology Helps series are designed to act as a lesson supplements. These texts are not intended to provide a comprehensive review of the materials covered without a full Biology or Anatomy & Physiology curriculum to back it up.
The Biology and Anatomy & Physiology Helps series also provides note taking tips as an aid to further develop classroom and study skills.
This volume covers the Heart
Table of contents:
Note Taking Helps
Coverings of the Heart
The Four Chambers
The Cardiac Cycle
Regulation of Cardiac Output
Resources and References
About the Author
right and left atrioventricular (AV) bundle branches conduct impulses through the interventricular septum these 2 branches carry impulses toward the apex of the heart the subendocardial conducting network or Purkinje fibers continue the pathway into the apex and ventricular walls, depolarizing the contractile cells of both ventricles atrioventricular (AV) bundle and Purkinje fibers depolarize ~30 times a minute in the absence of atrioventricular (AV) node input
ventricular depolarization through ventricular repolarization Abnormalities that can be detected from an ECG changes in ECG patterns may indicate disease or heart damage arrhythmia -abnormal heat rhythm heart block -inability of the ventricles to receive pacing impulses, can be a full or partial block atrial fibrillation the most common cardiac arrhythmia a condition where blood pools in the upper 2 chambers of the heart. ventricular fibrillation -the
classroom skills. The following abbreviations can help you increase your note taking speed in class and increase readability of notes at a later time. ~ = approximately ∴ = therefore w/ = with w/o = without b/c = because # = number or pounds ↑ = increase ↓ = decrease + = positive - = negative = = equals > = greater than < = less than ex = example excp = exception ⇒ or ➝ = yields Biology: NZ = enzyme NG = energy O₂ = oxygen CO₂ = carbon dioxide C = carbon AA = amino
stretch receptors, activating sympathetic reflexes hormones epinephrine -enhances heart rate and contractility thyroxine -increases heart rate and enhances the effects of norepinephrine and epinephrin ions -normal heart function depends on having normal levels of intracellular and extracellular ions present reduced Ca2+ depresses the heart high Ca2+ can create arrhythmias reduced K+ cause the heart to beat weakly and arrhythmically high K+
blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen pulmonary circuit carries blood to and from the lungs short low pressure left side -receives oxygenated blood form the lungs and pumps it throughout the body to supply oxygen and nutrients to the body's tissues systemic circuit carries blood to and from all the body tissues blood encounters much more resistance in the long pathways equal volumes of blood are pumped to the pulmonary and