Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers (9th Edition)
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The market-leading book Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers gives you what you need to understand to use the principles and practices of applied behavior analysis in the classroom. The content is presented clearly, in a friendly, accessible–even fun–manner. The ninth edition uses classroom-based examples and practices firmly grounded in research. Content is presented in the order of decision-making by a teacher who has a student exhibiting challenging behavior in class or a student who needs to execute a behavior-change project. The text covers identifying target behavior, collecting and graphing data, functional assessment, experimental design, arranging antecedents and consequences, and generalizing behavior change. The importance of ethical considerations in using applied behavior analysis in the classroom is now presented at the beginning of the book to highlight the importance of applying principles and practices responsibly.
step, Hall and Hall (1980) reminded teachers that “varying the reinforcers is more effective than using the same reinforcers over and over.” Repeated use of the same reinforcer can lead to boredom and satiation, lessening the motivating effectiveness of a consequence. Step 7: “Consider reinforcers that are natural.” Hall and Hall (1980) suggested three advantages to the use of natural reinforcers. First, natural reinforcers such as recognition and privileges can be provided more easily and at
challenging behavior. Certain principles should guide the selection of a procedure for behavior reduction. The first is the principle of the least intrusive alternative. This principle suggests that when determining which intervention to choose, an important consideration is the intervention’s level of intrusiveness. When one is considering behavior reduction, the least intrusive intervention is the least aversive or the lowest on the hierarchy. The teacher should determine, based on a hierarchy
Sajwaj, 1978; Sajwaj, Libet, & Agras, 1974)—and self-injurious behavior (Mayhew & Harris, 1979). The strongest, and most extreme, of the substance consequences has been the use of aromatic ammonia. Aromatic ammonia in the form of capsules of smelling salts crushed and held under the subject’s nose has been used to reduce self-injurious behavior (Altman & Haavik, 1978; Baumeister & Baumeister, 1978; Singh, 1979; Tanner & Zeiler, 1975), aggression toward others (Doke, Wolery, & Sumberg, 1983), and
all 55 words at once. It is better instructional and reinforcement practice for her to acquire a smaller number of words at a time. Similarly, if the goal is for the student to remain in his seat for 40 continuous minutes so he can be successful in an inclusive class, and his baseline level of performance is 5 continuous minutes, it is probably unreasonable to expect him to be able to master the entire 40 minutes at one time. It is more within his reach, and will provide many more opportunities
the data points is determined and may be indicated on the graph by drawing a horizontal line corresponding to the value on the ordinate scale. Visual inspection of the relation of these means will help determine if the intervention resulted in consistent and meaningful changes in the behavior in the desired direction of change. In Figure 5–29, Foxx and Shapiro (1978) supplied such indicators of means. The viewer can easily see the relative position of the students’ disruptive behavior across the