Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (Oxford Classical Monographs)
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In this study of the ritual of animal sacrifice in ancient Greek religion, Judaism, and Christianity in the period between 100 BC and AD 200, Maria-Zoe Petropoulou explores the attitudes of early Christians towards the realities of sacrifice in the Greek East and in the Jerusalem Temple (up to AD 70). Contrary to other studies in this area, she demonstrates that the process by which Christianity finally separated its own cultic code from the strong tradition of animal sacrifice was a slow and difficult one. Petropoulou places special emphasis on the fact that Christians gave completely new meanings to the term `sacrifice'. She also explores the question why, if animal sacrifice was of prime importance in the eastern Mediterranean at this time, Christians should ultimately have rejected it.
saw any diVerence between their contemporary and earlier (or much earlier, or mythical) animal sacriWcial rites. I shall also compare attestations of animal sacriWce coming from diVerent dates. Having demonstrated that the discontinuous character of our evidence does not imply discontinuity in Greek sacriWcial practice in our period, it is easier to move onto further aspects of our theme. I shall Wrst present the relation between the author’s past and his present (i.a). The link is mostly made by
particularities consist in speciWc characteristics of old-established rituals of animal sacriWce, which survived up to his time. Thus, a myth about a place, narrated by Diodorus, can at the same time be the aition for the sacriWcial rite practised at this place. Plutarch does not hesitate to interrupt his narration about the past in the Lives in order to talk about rituals of animal sacriWce, which were established in what was to Plutarch the remote past, and which continued to survive down to
The city’s largesse is also made obvious in the regulations forbidding taxation, either on the sacriWces themselves or on other Wnancial transactions on the festival days. The text from Oenoanda is, thus, representative of the interaction between city and individual. Indeed, it helps us to link the two mechanisms I describe in this section: 129 ‘the 12th, a sacriWce for ancestral Apollo;’ (v. 42). Also: ‘the 15th, the second sacriWce for ancestral Apollo;’ (v. 43), (tr. Mitchell). 130 [Wo¨rrle],
the seventeenth of Panemus—the so-called continual sacriWce had for lack of men/lambs ceased to be oVered to God and that the people were in consequence terribly despondent . . . (Loeb tr.) If Jewish sacriWcial ritual ever started again after the seventeenth of Panemus, Josephus was not obliged to mention it, since he is supposed to narrate the events of the war, up to ad 70. However, I doubt whether the social or Wnancial problems (indicated by the lack of men or lambs, respectively, according
contemporaries. I suggest that Philo’s writings might have been used for teaching purposes, so his views—and allegorizations— might have been shared by a wider public. I cite the following evidence. At times, Philo is very good at systematically setting out what in the Bible is represented by lengthy and often unclear regulations. Thus, in De spec. legibus 1 (168 V.), Philo makes a very useful presentation of all the diVerent sacriWcial types in Jewish cult. I can imagine that this systematic