A Study on the Thematic, Narrative, and Musical Structure of Guan Hanqing's Yuan Zaju, Injustice to Dou E (Currents in Comparative Romance Languages and Literatures)
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This book is a study of the thematic, narrative, and musical structure of Yuanqu xuan [A Selection of Yuan Plays] edition of the Yuan zaju (variety play) Dou E yuan [Injustice to Dou E] originally composed by the highly regarded playwright Guan Hanqing (fl. 1260). Although other authors have studied these three aspects of Dou E yuan separately, this is the first comprehensive treatment of the topic as a scholarly monograph in English. Yumin Ao’s analysis is based on the edition of the play in the Yuanqu xuan [A Selection of Yuan Plays] compiled by the Ming publisher Zang Maoxun (ca. 1550-1620). Ao proposes that Dou E yuan, as a dramatic narrative which develops through its enactment on the stage rather than by verbal presentation as a story, displays its integrative structure of narration through its thematic development and within its musical conventions.
Volume)], eds. Yu Weimin 俞為民 and Sun Rongrong 孫蓉蓉 (Hefei: Huangshan shushe, 2006), 318. 10 Ibid. 18 | a study on the thematic , narr ative , and m u s i c a l st r u c t ur e centres of theatrical activity.11 For instance, the cities of Zhending 真定 (modern Shijiazhuang 石家莊), Dongping 東平 (now in Shandong 山東) and Zhongdu 中都 (renamed Dadu by the Mongols, now Beijing) surrendered, and maintained their traditions of dramatic entertainment, as enclaves in the Mongol state. The city of Pingyang
above, Jia authorized a sequel to Zhong Sicheng’s register. This sequel is a supplement which lists the main playwrights in the late Yuan and early Ming dynasties: Guan Hanqing had innate skill in applying natural language and he was familiar with the subject matter of romance. He acquired a good reputation beyond the four lands of China and was accepted as the leader of the Pear Garden [the theatre], the chief of the dramatic composers and master of the zaju performance.
“twelve types of zaju” (zaju shier ke 雜劇十二科).44 However, Wilt L. Idema noted that Yuan zaju can 42 Dolby, “Yuan Drama,” 33–59. 43 James I. Crump, “The Elements of Yuan Opera,” Journal of Asian Studies vol. 17, no. 3 (May, 1958): 417–34; and Aoki Masaru, Yuan ren zaju xushuo 元人雜劇序說 [An Introductory Study on Yuan Drama], trans. Sui Shusen (Shanghai: Kaiming shudian, 1941), 32–40. 44 According to Zhu Quan, there are twelve categories of the subject matter of Yuan zaju. They are: 1. shenxian dao
household, to take care of her in her remaining years and give her a decent funeral when she dies. Dou E is a devoted daughter-in-law, 10 In the Han dynasty, Dong Zhongshu, and other Confucian moralists developed the theory that men are yang and women are yin, and furthermore that “yang is dominating, and yin is submissive.” This idea was the foundation of Ban Zhao’s 班昭 (ca. AD 45–ca. 117) Nüjie 女誡 [Admonitions for Women]. See Chenyang Li, “The Confucian Concept of Jen and the Feminist Ethics of
herself innocent of the charge of murder. The end of the play results in a junction, which is the clearing of Dou E’s name and her father’s rehabilitating her. The helper is Dou E’s father Dou Tianzhang, who is now a government official. The opponent is Zhang Lü’er, the villain who accuses Dou E of murder and who is responsible for her murder. In the play, the ghost of Dou E also functions as the sender, and her ghost appears to her father Dou Tianzhang and informs him of the injustice that she