A Cultural History of the Atlantic World, 1250-1820
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A Cultural History of the Atlantic World, 1250-1820 explores the idea that strong linkages exist in the histories of Africa, Europe, and North and South America. John K. Thornton provides a comprehensive overview of the history of the Atlantic Basin before 1830 by describing political, social, and cultural interactions between the continents' inhabitants. He traces the backgrounds of the populations on these three continental landmasses brought into contact by European navigation. Thornton then examines the political and social implications of the encounters, tracing the origins of a variety of Atlantic societies and showing how new ways of eating, drinking, speaking, and worshipping developed in the newly created Atlantic World. This book uses close readings of original sources to produce new interpretations of its subject.
against other European marauders.10 Protection was only part of the struggle, for the Normans also supported a pretender to Gaudafia’s throne named Asche. After a number of political crises and maneuvers, the Normans brokered a settlement in 1404, which left Guardarfia as king but subordinate to the Normans and subject to taxation, while also enjoying the revenues of a large estate set aside for his support.11 Guardarfia in turn offered them “all archers and soldiers” to assist Abreu Galindo,
Canarien, chapters 78–79, 87–88. 14 Boutier and Le Verrier, Canarien, chapter 84. 15 Boutier and Le Verrier, Canarien, chapter 85–87. The chronicle makes no mention of a settlement with Palma, and not much of one on Hierro, but concludes by noting that both were “conquered.” Torriani relates that the party was received joyously, as a local prophetess had predicted they would come, and the people believed them to be gods. This allowed the party to trick many into leaving to be sold as slaves
developed European, North American, and Japanese countries and the middling countries of South America and South Asia. In the one-volume presentation of 1966, Braudel used technology to define the levels, but when he revised the work in 1979, the levels remained, but the hoe/plow distinction was no longer as explicitly determinant; Capitalism and Material Life (3 vols., trans. Siân Reynolds, New York, 1983 [original French 1979]) 1: 58–59. On this map, however, the plow continues to be the
one of his Niger Delta informants who spoke a language Oldendorp called Ibo, the fundamental division among the people he knew was the presence of absence of circumcision, but he, like the others, suggested that their political divisions were much smaller entities.39 For example, Oldendorp identified one language, which he called Amina but which would be called either Akan or Twi today, spoken in the Gold Coast region (modern-day Ghana), and interviewed five different men about their identity.
[Machiparo’s people].”141 Carvajal believed that at the time of his visit in 1540, Machiparo could muster 50,000 men between the ages of 30 and 70, as younger ones did not go to war.142 Christoval de Acuña’s description, from the late 1630s, notes the same levels of authority and extent, as well as frequent wars, so much so that both sources note the presence of fortified frontier villages at the edges of their domains.143 While the wars may have had many causes, one of the outcomes was the